Type 2 diabetes is a medical disorder resulting from an imbalance in the body’s regulation of sugar metabolism. Another name for the sugar is glucose. The long-term effect of this illness is an excess of sugar in the blood. Over time, problems with the immunological, neurological, and cardiovascular systems may result from elevated blood sugar levels.

Two main issues are present in type 2 diabetes. First, there is insufficient insulin production by the pancreas, a hormone that is vital for controlling the uptake of sugar by cells. Additionally, cells absorb less sugar and react poorly to insulin.

Type 2 diabetes symptoms

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can be living with type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. When symptoms are present, they may include:

As the body tries to expel extra glucose through urine, people with diabetes may find that they need to urinate more frequently.

People who experience chronic thirst as a result of dehydration from frequent urination tend to drink more water.

People with diabetes may experience unexplained weight loss despite having greater hunger because their bodies use fat and muscle as energy sources when they don’t get enough glucose.

When blood glucose levels rise due to inadequate insulin or insulin resistance, the body’s cells are left without the energy they need to function, which increases appetite.

Weakness and weariness brought on by insufficient glucose consumption might affect day-to-day activities and general health.

Vision blurring is also one of the diabetes symptoms that can be a result of high blood sugar levels affecting the lens of the eye. If diabetes is well managed, these symptoms can go away.

 Diabetes may hinder the body’s natural healing processes, raising the possibility of infections and delaying the healing of wounds or injuries.

Role of Insulin

The pancreas produces the hormone insulin. When blood sugar levels fall, the pancreas responds by releasing less insulin. Blood sugar levels rise because the pancreas releases insulin, which circulate in the blood vessels and allows sugar to enter cells.

How glucose works?

The cells that comprise muscles as well as other tissues primarily utilize glucose as an energy source. In patients with diabetes type 2, this approach is not effective. Sugar accumulates in the blood rather than entering the cells. The pancreas secretes more insulin in response to an increase in blood sugar. The pancreatic cells that produce insulin eventually suffer damage that prevents them from producing enough of the hormone to meet the demands of the body.

Factors at risk

Both types of diabetes share similar risk factors. The following are some factors that could raise the possibility of type 2 diabetes:

Obesity or being overweight is a major risk.

The risk increases with one’s level of inactivity. Exercise increases insulin sensitivity in cells, burns glucose for energy, and aids with weight control.

Low levels of HDL cholesterol, also known as the “good” cholesterol, along with elevated levels of triglycerides are linked to an increased risk.

Type 2 diabetes is more common as people age, particularly beyond the age of 35.

 A blood sugar level that is higher than usual but not sufficiently elevated to be categorized as diabetes is called prediabetes. Type 2 diabetes frequently develops from prediabetes if it is not managed.

 Those who experienced gestational diabetes throughout their pregnancy as well as women who deliver baby weighing above nine pounds are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Complications

Numerous important organs, particularly the heart, blood arteries, nerves, eyes, and kidneys are impacted by type 2 diabetes. Controlling blood sugar and managing early signs of diabetes can reduce the chance of developing these issues as well as other illnesses like blood vessel and heart disease. Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, and atherosclerosis, or the narrowing of blood vessels.

We refer to this ailment as neuropathy. Over time, high blood sugar can harm or even destroy nerves. This can cause discomfort, tingling, burning, numbness, or even loss of feeling, which usually starts at the base of the fingers or toes and works its way up.

Abnormal cardiac rhythms may be caused by damage to the heart’s nerves. Digestion-related nerve injury might result in issues with vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, or constipation. Erectile dysfunction may also be brought on by nerve injury.

Diabetes can result in irreversible end-stage renal damage or chronic kidney disease. Dialysis or a renal transplant may be necessary for that.

Diabetes increases the risk of serious eye diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma, and may damage the blood vessels of the retina, potentially leading to blindness.

 Diabetes may increase the likelihood of bacterial and fungal infections, among other skin issues.

Diabetes patients are more likely to experience hearing issues.

People with type 2 diabetes frequently have obstructive sleep apnea. One major issue that may be related to both illnesses is obesity.

Alzheimer’s disorder and other conditions that result in dementia appear to be more common in people with type 2 diabetes. An increased rate of deterioration in memories and other cognitive abilities is associated with poor blood sugar regulation.

Type 2 diabetes treatment and Preventive measures

Making good lifestyle decisions can help ward off type 2 diabetes. Modifying your lifestyle can potentially halt or slow the onset of diabetes if you have been diagnosed with prediabetes.

Eating a balanced diet, exercising, decreasing weight, and avoiding prolonged periods of inactivity are all components of a healthy lifestyle.

Conclusion

Although both types of diabetes can start in childhood or maturity, type 2 diabetes was formerly referred to as adult-onset diabetes. Older persons are more likely to have type 2. However, a greater percentage of younger people are developing type 2 diabetes as a result of the rise in obese children.

The type 2 diabetes has no known treatment. Exercise, a healthy diet, and weight loss can all aid in disease management. Insulin therapy or diabetes medicines may be suggested if nutrition and physical activity alone are insufficient to regulate blood sugar levels.

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