The bladder is a hollow organ that stores urine until it is expelled from the body. Cancer of the bladder is a common cancer that affects this organ. With approximately 550,000 cases newly diagnosed annually, it ranks as the tenth most frequent cancer worldwide. Although bladder cancer can strike anyone at any age, older people—especially those over 55—are more likely to develop it. It is essential to comprehend bladder cancer symptoms, diagnosis, treatment choices, stages, and risk factors to discover the disease early and effectively manage it.

Bladder cancer symptoms

The degree of development and severity of the tumor can affect the bladder cancer symptoms. Among the most typical indications and symptoms are:

Hematuria, or the presence of blood in the urine, is the most typical sign of bladder cancer. Blood in the urine can be found under a microscope or evident to the unaided eye (gross hematuria).

It’s crucial to remember that other illnesses like benign prostatic hyperplasia or urinary tract infections can also induce the same symptoms. However, for an assessment and the necessary tests, anyone exhibiting these symptoms should speak with a healthcare provider.

Bladder cancer diagnosis

A physical examination, a review of the patient’s medical history, and several diagnostic procedures are often used to diagnose bladder cancer. These could consist of:

Urine tests: 

Blood in the pee and abnormal cells discharged from the bladder lining can be found using urinalysis and urine cytology.

Imaging tests: 

To view the bladder and determine the size of the tumor, imaging studies such as ultrasound imaging, CT scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or cystoscopy may be carried out.


This procedure looks for irregularities or tumors inside the bladder by utilizing a thin, flexible tube equipped with a camera (called a cystoscope).


To collect tissue samples for additional examination, a biopsy may be carried out if a cystoscopy reveals any suspected lesions or tumors.

Following a confirmed bladder cancer diagnosis, more testing may be carried out to ascertain the cancer’s stage and grade, which informs treatment choices.

Bladder cancer stages

Based on the tumor’s degree of dissemination, bladder cancer staging aids in diagnosing the stage and course of treatment. Bladder cancer is categorized into the following stages:

Stage 0: 

In situ carcinoma Only the bladder’s deepest layer contains cancerous cells.

Stage I: 

The bladder’s lining has been infiltrated by cancer, but the muscle layer has not been affected.

Stage II: 

The bladder’s muscle layer has been affected by the cancer.

Stage III: 

The cancer has progressed past the bladder muscle and into surrounding tissues, including the vagina, uterus, or prostate in women, or the seminal vesicles in men.

Stage IV: 

The cancer has progressed to distant organs, lymph nodes, or the liver, lungs, and bones.

Bladder cancer treatment

The state and stage of the cancer, the patient’s general health and habits, and other unique circumstances all play a role in the therapy of bladder cancer. Possible course of bladder cancer treatment options include:


For early-stage bladder cancer, a procedure called TURBT may be used to remove the tumor surgically. A radical or partial cystectomy, which involves removing all or part of the bladder, could be required in certain situations.


Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the possibility of cancer recurrence after surgery, while neoadjuvant chemotherapy kills cancer cells or shrinks tumors before surgery.


To encourage the immune system to target and eliminate cancer cells, immunotherapy medications such as immune checkpoint inhibitors or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) may be utilized.

Radiation therapy: 

When operation is not an option, radiation from an external beam or internal radiation can be utilized to destroy cancer cells or reduce symptoms.

Targeted therapy: 

In certain circumstances, medications that are aimed at cancer cells with particular genetic alterations may be employed.

The course of treatment is determined by the unique circumstances of each patient and may entail a mix of therapies.

Bladder Cancer Risk Factors

Bladder cancer risk factors can be raised by several variables. Among them are:


With cigarettes being the primary cause of about half of bladder cancer cases, smoking is the single biggest risk factor for the disease. Tobacco smoke contains chemicals that enter the bloodstream and are expelled in the urine, and they can harm the bladder’s lining.

Occupational exposure: 

People who work in manufacturing, painting, or the chemical sector, for example, may be exposed to chemicals like volatile and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are compounds that are known to raise the risk of bladder cancer.

Gender and age: 

The average age of diagnosis for bladder cancer is 73 years old, and it is more prevalent in older persons. Bladder cancer is also more common in men than in women.

Chronic bladder inflammation: 

Conditions including bladder stones or catheter use, together with persistent inflammation of the bladder or infections, may raise the risk of bladder cancer.

Family history: 

People who have a history of bladder cancer in their families may be more susceptible to getting the disease themselves, which may indicate a genetic predisposition.

Exposure to specific chemicals: 

The risk of bladder cancer may rise if one is exposed to specific chemicals, such as diesel exhaust, arsenic, and chlorinated drinking water.


Worldwide, cancer of the bladder is a major health risk that, if not identified and treated promptly, might have catastrophic repercussions. Those with the disease, healthcare providers, and people in general must comprehend the signs, diagnosis, available bladder cancer treatment, phases, and risk factors related to bladder cancer. We can enhance the prognosis of those impacted by this illness and eventually lessen the impact of cancer of the bladder on society by increasing knowledge of the disease and encouraging early detection and action.

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